Good Engineering judgement should be used when designing collectors or drag struts within shearlines. ... Shear Walls, Drag Struts collector v = 100 lb/ft 8 ft 32 ft 8 ft v = 300 lb/ft v = 300 lb/ft 1,600 lb ... 3 - Diaphragm Design Examples.pptx Author: Richard McLain STRUCTURE® magazine is a registered trademark of the National Council of Structural Engineers Associations (NCSEA). The structural concept of drag struts and brace frames is for the drag strut to “drag” (collect) the forces of lateral seismic motion and bring them to a brace frame (or other rigid bracing element like a shear wall) and channel those horizontal forces into a vertical … design of building systems entails controlling the building displacements, typically by providing resistance to the inertial forces generated by the acceleration of the building mass. They are lighter in weight than a … In-plane unit diaphragm shears are usually limited by the localized load transfer nail capacity in the wood, rather than by the shear capacity of the panels. The nailing pattern is generally dictated by the number of truss plies required to resist the shear demand along the top chord of the drag truss. Popular examples of this rear suspension can be found in cars such as the '64 to '72 GM A-bodies and the '79 to '93 Ford Fox Mustangs. Ive been searching the web for a sort of comprehensive list of what elements get designed for the Overstrength Factor, Ωo, of ASCE 7-10 and have been unsuccessful. (Central Mass.) In the upper example of Figure 3, one might think that the force is transferred through the steel—and with the bottom example, one might think that the forces would transfer through the diaphragm. Clip location, however, should not coincide with the metal plate, either the primary plate or the shear plate of the truss joint. Proceedings of a Workshop on Design of Horizontal Wood Diaphragms, 199-251. It engages, enlightens, and empowers structural engineers through interesting, informative, and inspirational content. The following example shows a common application typical to the nature of a drag truss. A plan call-out can be phrased as follows: delegated truss engineer to design drag truss for the bottom chord transfer load (ultimate) due to wind: W = 445 plf. Consider a wood-framed, rectangular, single-story family dwelling with a wind-driven uniform distributed loading of 200 plf acting along the diaphragm (Figure 4). Figure 3. The design professional, however, is ultimately responsible for the design of the structure and, therefore, needs to confirm that the truss system bracing design has been addressed adequately. endstream endobj 175 0 obj <. All materials contained in this website fall under U.S. copyright laws. Figure 1. The Analysis of Irregular Shaped Structures: Diaphragms and Shear Walls (pp. For example, a biplane with cabane struts and one set of interplane struts on each side of the aircraft is a single-bay biplane.. For a small type such as a World War I scout like the Fokker D.VII, one bay is usually enough. A single-ply drag truss top and bottom chord may be adequate to handle the axial tension/compression force demanded but inadequate to accommodate the nailing. The load sources are: Source 1: Floor loads (acting as a uniform load over the entire span). A drag truss, sometimes referred to as a “collector” truss, is a single- or multi-ply pre-engineered truss designed to “drag,” distribute, and transfer shear loads generated within the plane of the diaphragm to the vertical LFRS elements. h�bbd```b``��+��M�� "�4��}��(0� ,�̎�U���`�����&3Ad�������@�l�]� ��Dr��g����z����`6�m���K�k�.��e`��� H�� Experience STRUCTURE magazine at its best! Web development and content management by C3 Ink™, a division of Copper Creek Companies, Inc. Before linking, please review the STRUCTUREmag.org linking policy. 174 0 obj <> endobj I understand how to apply it, just not particularly to which items. The design professional must indicate if the specified loads are reduced (i.e., for ASD 0.6W or 0.7E). Good Engineering judgement should be used when designing collectors or drag struts within shearlines. The delegated truss manufacturer is responsible for the bracing that resists in-plane buckling of the individual components of the truss while subjected to compression forces. Consider a wood-framed, rectangular, single-story family dwelling with a wind-driven uniform distributed loading of 200 plf acting along the diaphragm (Figure 4). From a connection standpoint, adding and locating a drag truss directly above the LFRS element (Figure 1) when the typical spacing does not place a truss above the LFRS is the most direct solution and functions equally well for light and heavy shear loads. Figure 2. The Diekmann method provided strap force estimates that were approximately two times higher than the drag strut method. Premanufactured, metal plate-connected, wood drag trusses can provide a pathed load-delivery mechanism designed to assist and engage the lateral force-resisting system (LFRS) elements during high-wind or seismic events. Nail withdrawal capacity can be increased with properly fastened ring-shank nails and should be considered by the design professional. If it is h�b```g``:������ Ā B,@Q���-��Jn[j�g�^���d�Uװ���c�5�yч�;R��/V��)\���}�EGG��d�B@���1H! Often the great majority of the load is derived from the mass ... Strut-and-tie analysis methods; and If this is selected, then the non-steel member's capacity will be checked against the forces derived from the overstrength seismic load combinations. Nailing patterns based on species, structural sheathing thickness, and other specified requirements for diaphragms have also been tabulated and are included in the American Wood Council’s (AWC) Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic (SDPWS). Commonly used types of lumber web reinforcement include scab bracing and T- and L-bracing. SECTION 2305 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR LATERAL FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEMS 2305.1 General. Wood’s inherent characteristics make it an ideal material for shear wall and diaphragm design. Intricate building layouts or complex building geometries result in diaphragm irregularities that can result in significant stress concentrations and increased demands at localized boundary element disruptions. This discussion raised a question of which design analogy was more correct. Drag trusses interior to a diaphragm will generally receive unit shears from two separate diaphragm spans. APA Force Transfer Around Openings Calculator. Collector (typ.) The span of a wing between two sets of interplane or cabane struts is called a bay.Wings are described by the number of bays on each side. The following example shows a common application typical to the nature of a drag truss. Shear walls of 10 feet and 8 feet are sectioned to accommodate for architectural features, which yields approximately 445 plf to be transferred into each shear wall below (Figure 5). This calculator is an Excel-based tool for professional designers that uses FTAO methodology to calculate maximum hold-down force for uplift resistance, the required horizontal strap force for the tension straps above and below openings, the maximum shear force to determine sheathing attachment and the maximum deflection of the wall system. Collector (typ.) The tributary-based unit diaphragm shear of 8 kips is to be transferred along the drag truss and must be called out on the framing plans. Given: The beam shown in Figure 2.4.1.1 supports a floor system and a column. Seismic Use Group: See Sec. The drag strut technique is a relatively simple rational analysis that treats segments above and below the openings as drag struts. I rarely work with wood trusses but the next time I do, I’ll know exactly what to do. Boundary members include chords and drag struts at diaphragms and shear wall perimeters, interior openings, discontinuities, and re-entrant corners. 0 Q -����^ݺY�q�����eA�W� F�3,yh6@ݧ��j�H3200�i5V��>�^ �����Hk2��1B�� ��=� Design Details for The Transfer of Forces in Wood Diaphragms to Vertical Elements. %%EOF When this is the case, the design professional can specify to the truss manufacturer the required number of plies, the species, and the minimum size lumber required. A typical illustration of truss shop drawings showing a drag truss over a shear wall. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). FEMA 451B Topic 13 Notes Wood Structures 13 - 2 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Timber Structures 13 - 2 Objectives of Topic Understanding of: • Basic wood behavior • Typical framing methods • Main types of lateral force resisting systems • Expected response under lateral loads • Sources of strength, ductility and energy dissipation Kolba (2000) performed a detailed experimental study on perforated wood shear walls focusing Shear panel: A floor, roof, or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm. Shear walls of 10 feet and 8 feet are sectioned to accommodate for architectural features, which yields approximately 445 plf to be t… Top and bottom chords in compression can buckle laterally if not braced or appropriately reinforced. Reforming Structural Engineering Education. Structure over Podium Slab Design Example Design a complete load path. Also, the truss manufacturer will provide, within the truss design drawings, the fastening requirements from the reinforcement to the trusses. The DSC2 is a smaller, lighter version that installs with fewer fasteners. (f)(7) of the truss standard and IBC 2303.4.1.1(6), is required to show bearing and span conditions on the truss shop drawings. The most popular drag race rear suspension is … Space frame system: A structural system composed of interconnected members, other than bearing analyzed in example one and their results are compared with experimental data and found to give good ... and axial compression in the struts ... consists not only the force acting on the normal projection of the cofferdam but also on the drag force acting along the sides. As with all drag race cars a single A-arm or strut car benefits from narrower tires in the front. 1.1.4. Wind Loads Above, Figure 1609, Basic Wind Speed (3-second gust), 33 feet above ground, exposure C IBC 2003 Zone V 30 (mph) 1 2 3 70 80 90 (Western Mass.) Comments posted to STRUCTURE website do not constitute endorsement by NCSEA, CASE, SEI, C3 Ink, or the Editorial Board. To avoid receiving varying edge and field nailing, special uniform nailing along the full extent of the truss top chord should be shown on both the framing notes and section cut detail. Collector (typ.) Strut chord Strut /chord Strut Strut/chord Strut/chord SW1 SW5 SW2 SW3 SW6 SW4 Strut MRF1 Multiple offset diaphragm Offset strut Support Support Collector Collector Collector (typ.) The loading source – whether wind or seismic – also needs to be noted. the presence of any drag struts. In order to ensure a uniform force transfer, the design professional is required, by sub-sections 2.3.2.4 (a), (b), (c) of the truss standard, to furnish and denote the location, orientation, and extent of each drag truss and the connected shear wall(s) below (Figure 3). Light gauge shear angle clips are typically used to transfer the shear from the truss bottom chord to the top of the shear wall. Depending upon the increased diaphragm shear demand and building footprint, interior shear walls may need to be engaged. Example 1: residential roof diaphragm trussed roof (2x lumber) unblocked ... • Chord design – tension and compression • Collector design – tension and comp. It should be noted that excessive drift can occur if the aspect ratio of the shear walls underneath the drag truss is not fully evaluated per AWC’s SDPWS. On This Page. Drag Strut Analogy Forces are collected and concentrated into the areas above and below openings Strap forces are a function of opening and pier widths 22 ho/2 F1 V1 L1 h1 F ho/2 2 V2 L2 hU 1 2 History of FTAO Research at APA Prominent FTAO Techniques Cantilever Beam Analogy Forces are treated as moment couples Segmented panels are piers at Product Details. The tributary-based unit diaphragm shear of 8 kips is to be transferred along the drag truss and must be called out on the framing plans. • Drag strut (or collector) • Diaphragm • Collector beam (or drag strut) Vertical Plane Horizontal Plane 17 Rigid v. Flexible Diaphragm •Importance •Distribution of load to shear wall •Flexible •Diaphragm load is distributed to shear walls by tributary area •Rigid •Diaphragm load is … However, it is the responsibility of the truss designer to understand, review, and incorporate all applicable framing requirements and framing specifications into the design of the truss system. There are even some cases where the shearwall do not extend to the corridor and no drag strut is called out, leaving me to … Connections Tutorial 4 - Design Collectors or Drag Strut (Canadian) In this tutorial, it will be demonstrated how the results from a WoodWorks shearwalls model can be interpreted to complete connection design of a Collector or drag strut. Contact publisher for all permission requests. Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic, American Wood Council, Leesburg, VA. Clear explanation, useful details, and a real-world example. This drag strut, drag truss or collector is a single element or component designed to transmit lateral loads to lateral load resisting systems that are parallel to the applied force.” Fastening of the clip into a plate can potentially push the plate “teeth” out of the truss bottom chord. Questions or comments regarding this website are encouraged: Contact the webmaster. endstream endobj startxref This article reviews common force transfer considerations in drag trusses and provides suggestions to design professionals for complying with ANSI/TPI 1-2014, National Design Standard for Metal Plate Connected Wood Truss Construction, the truss standard as referenced by the 2015 International Building Code (IBC) which addresses the design criteria for pre-engineered wood trusses. %PDF-1.5 %���� At the request of the design professional or local building official, the truss manufacturer must submit a preliminary truss submittal package to the design professional for review and approval before the manufacturing of the trusses. Shear wall: A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall. 204 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<4C194E5BDA482344B5D704BF300D3BFD>]/Index[174 56]/Info 173 0 R/Length 130/Prev 350325/Root 175 0 R/Size 230/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream 1.1.4. For more information regarding the design and criteria of metal plate connected wood trusses, the reader is encouraged to read a free, read-only download of the standard ANSI/TPI 1-2014 on the Truss Plate Institute website, www.tpinst.org.■. Practical ways to reduce potential failure mechanisms are also discussed. The drag force, as developed within the plane of the diaphragm sheathing and transferred into the truss, must be called out on the framing plan or in the framing notes for the truss manufacturer. If a Seismic Design Rule is applied to a beam member which is not hot rolled steel (such as a wood drag strut), that member will ignore the design rules except for the Overstrength required flag. Opening at Exterior Wall Chapter 4.0 - Evaluation Phase (Tier 2) FEMA 310 Seismic Evaluation Handbook 4 - 73 These loads are generated within the structure and transferred into load carrying elements (like drag strut trusses, shear walls or roof diaphragms) which then transfer the loads to the foundation and then safely into the ground. Shop drawings involving drag trusses should be reviewed and scrutinized by the design professional upon receipt. Str uctural Design Criteria 53 Seismic forces: See Sec. Drag truss parallel to the shear wall below. The Advanced Drag Load Dialog Window defaults to “Wind” + “Seismic” and “Include all live loads”. Example Problem 2.1. 229 0 obj <>stream (f)(7) of the truss standard and IBC 2303.4.1.1(6), is required to show superimposed drag force loads on the truss shop drawings. A typical truss profile by the truss manufacturer, per Section 2.3.5.5. It is the responsibility of the design professional to specify and detail the design intent and requirements in a clear and unambiguous manner on the construction documents. Seismic Design of Wood Light-Frame Structural Diaphragms Systems [PDF]. The truss design drawings will indicate, per Section 2.3.5.5(m) and Section 2.3.5.5(o) of the truss standard, which web members require lateral restraint, the maximum axial forces in the truss members, as well as the type and location of the reinforcement. Last Revised: 11/04/2014. Framing a drag truss over an interior shear wall can help alleviate stress concentrations at diaphragm openings, re-entrant corners, offsets, or reduce the aspect ratio of the diaphragm. However, either way is possible. It also acts as a drag strut in the lateral load resisting system of the building that it is a part of. Most wood light-frame construction in low-rise single- or multi-family dwellings have sloped roofs. Its light weight results in less force due to inertia during an earthquake, and less force means less damage. Where wood structural paneling sheathes and shapes the diaphragm, it also mechanically restrains and braces pitched trusses to provide permanent lateral stability. Drag loads are due to lateral (horizontal) loads generated in high-wind or seismic events. For wind applications, uplift and lateral loads can occur simultaneously. This article provides a review of additional considerations required from the design professional for specifying common truss design variables to be used by the truss designer. Bravo! The DSC5 has been designed to optimize fastener location. Components of Shear Wall Design Collector & Drag Design Shear Wall Construction Shear Transfer Detailing Shear Resistance. An alternative load path and connection detail (Figure 2) can be used if the drag trusses and shear wall are not aligned vertically but works better for light shear loads and less well for heavy shear loads. Similarly, Section 7.3.3.5 of the truss standard recognizes gypsum board installed directly to the bottom chord of the truss and fastened in accordance with ASTM C840 as an approved continuous lateral restraint and brace mechanism. The reactions are generally expressed as “RL,” “R,” and “U.” RL is the maximum horizontal reaction in pounds per linear foot from non-gravity loading or drag force loading, R is the maximum vertical reaction from a gravity load case, and U is the maximum uplift reaction from a wind load case (Figure 3). framing members (drag struts) if the diaphragm has insufficient strength. Section 2.3.2.4 of ANSI/TPI 1-2014 sub-sections (a), (b), (c), and (d) require the design professional to provide distinct criteria on construction documents as they relate to drag trusses. Several common considerations are summarized below. Shear walls that exist under the drag truss, whether partial, sectioned, or full-length, might receive both lateral and gravity forces from the drag truss and can be simultaneously subjected to uplift. Ideally, the drag truss will span the length of and “sit” on the LFRS to develop the lateral and tension/compression overturning forces into the shear wall(s) below. The McGraw Hill Companies. Collector elements must be capable of transferring the seismic or wind forces originating in other portions of the … 23-82). If you have a race-only car you may choose to run Moroso front tires (not DOT-approved tires). building professionals to design and construct safe, strong buildings that meet code require-ments while fulfilling lateral design criteria. Both uplift and lateral load connection capacities must be evaluated under combined loading and need to consider both loading directions. Proper communication with the truss manufacturer is vital. Cobeen, K. E., Dolan, J. D., Thompson, D., & Van de Lindt, J. W. (n.d.). estimated following the drag strut analogy. SANTHUFF'S Suspension Specialties 12886 County Road 1394 Sinton, Texas 78387 361-364-3169 Malone, R. T., & Rice, R. W. Diaphragm Basics. STRUCTURE magazine is the premier resource for practicing structural engineers. It should be noted that the truss designer is not responsible for calculating drag force loads in the structure. DSC Drag-Strut Connector. A typical truss profile from the truss manufacturer, per Section 2.3.5.5. This is the equivalent of the original Drag Load Dialog Window that was described in the example above. The adequacy of the walls to span out-of-plane between points of anchorage shall be evaluated and the adequacy of the diaphragm connections to resist wall out-of-plane forces shall be evaluated. Details should include proper specification of nail sizes (pennyweight, type, diameter, and length), nail spacing, nail-to-panel edge tolerance, and account for the density-dependent capacity of the framing member. The design professional should also review the truss manufacturer’s nail spacing into the drag truss chord to verify that the allowable on-center spacing is not exceeded. Common design practice for trussed roof and floor diaphragms in light-frame construction relies on drag trusses to serve as boundary elements (boundary members and their connections) and provide the primary and/or auxiliary load-transfer mechanism configured to carry in-plane axial tension and/or compression forces to the shear walls below. For the condition presented in Figure 5, additional parameters on the plan include the bearing surface width, the location and extent of the truss, and shear walls below. Both sequencing and pattern of the nailing must be evaluated. The preferred truss layout aligns the drag truss above the vertical LFRS. The effective strength and stiffness of horizontal wood diaphragms depend primarily on the mechanism of force transfer between adjacent wood structural panels. A drag truss acting as diaphragm support and boundary chord requires boundary nailing stipulation. Truss-framed roof systems with high-pitched top chords and horizontal bottom chords have a smaller weak-axis moment of inertia than, say, a flat roof or floor joists, and under shear load will tend to deflect more in weak-axis bending. In most common roof truss designs, drag loads are mostly from the wind forces. elements are called “drag struts.” Generally, greater lengths of perforated shear walls are needed to resist lateral loads than segmented shear walls. the design of a drag strut truss more accurate. The DSC drag-strut connector transfers diaphragm shear forces from a girder truss or beam to shearwalls. The design professional should provide the magnitude of this force, in units of force per unit length of the sectioned shear wall(s) below (e.g., pounds per linear foot), and note whether it is factored or nominal (unfactored), as stipulated by the applicable code under which the structure is designed. The design professional should also specify any other tolerance-driven limits. The staggered nature of the sheathing generally dictates the sequencing. I was hoping I … Reprinting or other use of these materials without express permission of NCSEA is prohibited. Diekmann, E. F. (1980). I have been reviewing many example sets of plans from engineers across the country, and it appears that either method #1 or #3 above is being utilized. Connections Tutorial 4 - Design Collectors or Drag Strut ( U.S.) In this tutorial, it will be demonstrated how the results from a WoodWorks shearwalls model can be interpreted to complete connection design of a collector or drag strut. As a result, the delegated truss manufacturer requires clear and well-documented plan callouts and details from the design professional. Figure 4-33. *�VF@Z�e�"���2�3��,Xu�`��=. This analogy assumes that the shear loads in the full-height segments are collected and concentrated into the sheathed segments above and below the openings. With no clear directive in the design codes, there have been multiple design rationale techniques developed (e.g., Drag-Strut Analogy, Cantilever Beam, Diekmann), which has caused some dispute between design professionals as to which technique is the most precise. 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